Handler's Classification

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What is Handler's Classification?

Handler's classification is a classification system for operating systems (OSs) developed by Frederick P. Brooks Jr., a computer scientist, and software engineer. The classification system is based on the way in which the OS handles input/output (I/O) operations, and divides operating systems into four categories:

  • Batch systems: Batch systems are OSs that process input data in batches, rather than in real time. They are typically used in large-scale computing environments where a large number of jobs are processed in sequence.
  • Interactive systems: Interactive systems are OSs that allow users to interact with the system in real-time, through a command line interface or a graphical user interface (GUI). They are typically used in desktop and laptop computers.
  • Time-sharing systems: Time-sharing systems are OSs that allow multiple users to access and use the system concurrently, with each user receiving a slice of processing time. They are typically used in multi-user environments such as servers and mainframes.
  • Real-time systems: Real-time systems are OSs that are designed to respond to input events in a timely manner, typically within a few milliseconds. They are used in critical systems such as aircraft control systems and industrial automation systems.

Handler's classification is a useful way to understand the different types of operating systems and the contexts in which they are typically used. It is important to note that many modern operating systems, such as Linux and Windows, can be classified into multiple categories, depending on how they are configured and used.

See Also