SECI Model of Knowledge Creation
The SECI Model of Knowledge Creation is a theoretical framework developed by Nonaka and Takeuchi in the 1990s that describes how knowledge is created and shared within organizations. The model is based on four modes of knowledge conversion: Socialization, Externalization, Combination, and Internalization.
- Socialization: In the socialization mode, individuals share tacit knowledge through direct experience, observation, and practice. This can occur through apprenticeships, job shadowing, or other forms of on-the-job training. Socialization is an effective way to transfer knowledge that is difficult to articulate or codify.
- Externalization: In the externalization mode, individuals convert tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge by articulating it in a way that can be shared with others. This can involve creating diagrams, models, or other forms of representation that capture the essence of the knowledge being shared.
- Combination: In the combination mode, individuals combine explicit knowledge from different sources to create new knowledge. This can involve synthesizing information from various sources, analyzing data, or creating new processes or systems that draw on existing knowledge.
- Internalization: In the internalization mode, individuals internalize explicit knowledge and incorporate it into their tacit knowledge. This can occur through practice, reflection, and experimentation and involves integrating new knowledge into existing mental models and ways of thinking.
The SECI model emphasizes the importance of sharing and collaboration in creating new knowledge within organizations. By encouraging individuals to share their tacit knowledge and by providing a framework for converting that knowledge into explicit knowledge, organizations can create a culture of continuous learning and innovation.
The SECI model is widely used in the field of knowledge management and has been applied in a variety of organizational settings. It has been used to design knowledge management systems, facilitate knowledge sharing and collaboration, and promote organizational learning.
The model has also been adapted and extended by researchers and practitioners. For example, some have added a fifth mode of knowledge conversion, called "Internalization 2," which involves transferring tacit knowledge from one individual to another. Others have explored the role of emotions and motivation in knowledge creation and transfer.
Critics of the SECI model argue that it oversimplifies the complex process of knowledge creation and may not apply to all organizational contexts. Some have also criticized the model for emphasizing explicit knowledge and its focus on the individual rather than collective knowledge creation.
Despite these criticisms, the SECI model remains a valuable framework for understanding how knowledge is created and shared within organizations. By providing a roadmap for converting tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge, the model offers practical guidance for organizations seeking to foster a culture of innovation and continuous learning. Overall, the SECI model of knowledge creation has helped organizations to understand better the processes involved in creating and sharing knowledge. It emphasizes the importance of individual and collective knowledge creation and highlights the need for collaboration and continuous learning.
By applying the SECI model, organizations can develop effective strategies for knowledge management and create a culture of innovation and continuous improvement. This can help organizations to stay competitive in today's fast-paced, knowledge-based economy.
In conclusion, the SECI model is a useful framework for understanding the processes involved in creating and sharing knowledge within organizations. By emphasizing the importance of socialization, externalization, combination, and internalization, the model provides a roadmap for organizations seeking to foster a culture of innovation and continuous learning. While the model may not be applicable in all organizational contexts, it remains a valuable tool for organizations seeking to stay competitive in today's knowledge-based economy.