N7 (New 7 Tools)

The N7 tools are problem-solving techniques developed by Japanese quality management experts in the 1970s. These tools were created to complement the 7 Basic Quality Tools (7QC Tools), focusing on addressing more complex and data-intensive problems.

  • Affinity Diagram: A tool that organizes many ideas, issues, or data points into related groups or themes for better analysis and understanding.
  • Relations Diagram: Also known as Interrelationship Digraph, it is a tool used to identify the cause-and-effect relationships among different factors or issues.
  • Tree Diagram: A tool that breaks down broad objectives or problems into smaller, more manageable components or tasks, creating a hierarchical structure.
  • Matrix Diagram: A tool to analyze the relationships between different factors, elements, or issues by organizing them into a matrix format.
  • Matrix Data Analysis: A technique used to analyze and prioritize the relationships identified in a matrix diagram, determining their relative importance or impact.
  • Arrow Diagram: Also known as the Activity Network Diagram, it is a tool used to visualize and manage the sequence of tasks or activities in a project, identifying the critical path and dependencies.
  • Process Decision Program Chart (PDPC): A tool used to identify potential risks or problems in a process and develop appropriate contingency plans or countermeasures.

Purpose: The primary purpose of the N7 (New 7 Tools) is to provide a set of problem-solving techniques to address complex and data-intensive issues that may not be adequately resolved using the traditional 7 Basic Quality Tools. The N7 tools help organizations systematically analyze and understand problems, leading to better decision-making and continuous improvement.

Role: The N7 tools play a crucial role in enhancing the problem-solving capabilities of organizations by providing a structured approach to identify root causes, evaluate relationships between factors, plan and manage tasks, and develop contingency plans.

Components: The N7 tools consist of the following techniques:

  • Affinity Diagram
  • Relations Diagram (Interrelationship Digraph)
  • Tree Diagram
  • Matrix Diagram
  • Matrix Data Analysis
  • Arrow Diagram (Activity Network Diagram)
  • Process Decision Program Chart (PDPC)

Importance: The N7 tools are essential in the modern business environment as they enable organizations to tackle complex problems that require a deeper understanding of relationships, dependencies, and cause-and-effect patterns. These tools help organizations make data-driven decisions, optimize processes, and achieve strategic objectives.

History: The N7 tools were developed by Japanese quality management experts in the 1970s to complement the existing 7 Basic Quality Tools (7QC Tools). The need for a more sophisticated set of problem-solving tools arose as organizations faced increasingly complex challenges that required a more systematic and data-intensive approach.


  • Enhanced problem-solving: The N7 tools provide a structured framework for understanding and solving complex issues, leading to better decision-making and continuous improvement.
  • Data-driven decisions: By using the N7 tools, organizations can make more informed decisions based on a thorough data analysis and relationships between factors.
  • Continuous improvement: The N7 tools support identifying areas for improvement, facilitating a culture of continuous improvement within organizations.
  • Versatility: The N7 tools can be applied to various industries and functions, making them a valuable asset for organizations seeking to address complex problems.

Pros and Cons:


  • Improved problem-solving capabilities for complex issues.
  • Facilitates data-driven decision-making.
  • Encourages a culture of continuous improvement.
  • Applicable across various industries and functions.


  • May require significant time and effort to implement effectively.
  • Some tools may not apply to all problems or situations.
  • Requires training and expertise to use the tools effectively.

Examples to illustrate key concepts:

  • A manufacturing company uses the Affinity Diagram to analyze customer feedback data, organizing the information into related categories that highlight areas for improvement. This helps the company prioritize issues and develop targeted solutions.
  • An organization uses the Relations Diagram to identify the root causes of decreased product quality. By mapping the cause-and-effect relationships between factors, the organization can pinpoint the primary factors contributing to the issue and develop a targeted action plan.
  • A project team utilizes the Arrow Diagram to visualize and manage the sequence of tasks in a complex project. This helps the team identify the critical path and dependencies, ensuring the project stays on schedule and allocating resources effectively.

In summary, the N7 tools provide a comprehensive set of problem-solving techniques designed to address complex and data-intensive issues. By implementing these tools, organizations can enhance their problem-solving capabilities, make more informed decisions, and promote a culture of continuous improvement.

See Also