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Leavitt's Alignment Model or Leavitt’s System Model also known as Leavitt’s diamond is an integrated model to [[Change Management|organizational change management]]. Leavitt’s diamond and organizational theory was developed by  Dr. Harold Leavitt professor at Claremont and Stanford Universities in 1965. According to this approach, before you bring about change in any one of the four components, you should evaluate the impact on the other three components. To implement change successfully, you need to find the right balance between all of them.
  
== What is Leavitt's Alignment Model? ==
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Leavitt's Diamond is based on the principle that an organization has four major components that are all interdependent:
 +
*1. Tasks
 +
*2. People
 +
*3. Structure
 +
*4. Technology
 +
Any type of change or redesign in one component will affect the other three. According to this approach, before you bring about change in any one of the four components, you should evaluate the impact on the other three components. To implement change successfully, you need to find the right balance between all of them. A classic example is introducing new technology. A change in technology means that people need to change too – they'll need training to use the new technology. This may affect the [[Organizational Structure|organizational structure]], because people might demand higher pay and better positions. The new technology may also change old tasks. For instance, if the change automates old processes, the work that people do will be different.<ref>Definition - What is the Leavitt's Diamond? [https://edisciplinas.usp.br/pluginfile.php/1769799/mod_resource/content/3/texto%2001%20-%20Leavitts%20Diamond%20-%20An%20Integrated%20Approach%20to%20Change.pdf Mindtools]</ref>
  
== What is Leavitt's Diamond?<ref>https://edisciplinas.usp.br/pluginfile.php/1769799/mod_resource/content/3/texto%2001%20-%20Leavitts%20Diamond%20-%20An%20Integrated%20Approach%20to%20Change.pdf Mindtools]</ref> ==
 
Leavitt's Diamond is based on the principle that an organization has four major components that
 
are all interdependent:
 
1. Tasks
 
2. People
 
3. Structure
 
4. Technology
 
Any type of change or redesign in one component will affect the other three. According to this approach, before you bring about change in any one of the four components, you should evaluate the impact on the other three components. To implement change successfully, you need to find the right balance between all of them. A classic example is introducing new technology. A change in technology means that people need to change too – they'll need training to use the new technology. This may affect the [[Organizational Structure|organizational structure]], because people might demand higher pay and better positions. The new technology may also change old tasks. For instance, if the change automates old processes, the work that people do will be different.
 
  
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[[File:Leavitts_Model.png|400px|Leavitt's Diamond]]<br />
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source: Harold Leavitt’s diamond shaped organisational systems model (1965) (DeLone,W.:2009)
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'''The Components of Leavitt's Diamond'''<ref>The Four The Components of Leavitt's Diamond [https://daniellock.com/change-management-models/ Daniel Lock]</ref><br />
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*Structure: The structural component of Leavitt’s Diamond is about how individuals and teams are grouped in the organization.  This is not only the hierarchical structure but also the relationships, communication patterns, and coordination between different management levels, departments, and employees. This would also include how authority and responsibility flow within the organization. The structure needs to be altered when changes are made to any other component of the diamond.
 +
**Key analysis questions:
 +
***What is the hierarchy in your work unit? Is the unit centralized or decentralized?
 +
***Where is the control at each level?
 +
***How are the work units divided?
 +
***What is the geographical breakdown (if everything isn’t at one location)?
 +
***How are duties divided?
 +
***What is the workflow?
 +
***What is the communication flow?
 +
 +
*Tasks: To deliver the value we must do something. And “something” in this model is “tasks”. The department team and individuals all perform tasks. In an organizational change context, it’s important to understand what these tasks are in the current state and then compare these to what the tasks will be in the future state. By understanding this you can then develop communications and training programs to bridge the gap. In organizational restructures, perhaps where roles are made redundant or shifted to other departments it becomes critical to identify all the tasks and who and how they will be performed in the new environment.
 +
**Key analysis questions:
 +
***What is the staff expected to do?
 +
***How do staff get work done?
 +
***Why does the work unit exist?
 +
 +
*People: People in this model are the actual people and their skills, attitudes, and behaviors in the workforce. People bring all this as a context to perform their work (or tasks). It’s important to understand the skills, behaviors, and attitudes people must have to succeed in the new environment.
 +
**Key analysis questions:
 +
***What are their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors?
 +
***What is their response to the proposed change?
 +
***What are their skill levels?
 +
***What are they trained to do?
 +
***What are the rewards that motivate them?
 +
***What is their work culture?
 +
 +
*Technology: Technology is about the tools that people use to perform the tasks.
 +
**Key analysis questions:
 +
***Key equipment and processes that enable and support your business functions, including computer systems, essential software, devices – anything that enables communication and workflow.
 +
***Tools you can use to implement the proposed change, including things such as seminars and training materials.
 +
 +
 +
Leavitt‟s  diamond presents  a  balanced  and  rational view  toward  complexities  affecting  Knowledge Management framework. It also  views technology in direct and strong relation with required tasks, employees, and task organization i.e. structure. This  model has  been widely  used as  the basis  for understanding  and realizing organizational changes.  Leavitt‟s diamond (1965) demonstrates four groups of organizational variables: task, people, technology, and structure. As the arrows in the Figure above indicate, Leavitt states that these variables have many transactions with each  other.  Thus,  changing  one  of  them  would  result  in  regulatory  and  compensating  change  in  other components. Technologies are tools that  help organizations perform their tasks  and help mechanisms turn inputs into products. [[Knowledge Management|Knowledge management]]is not just about management of knowledge work processes or people performing them, since it  influences [[Information Technology (IT)|technology]]  and organizational structure as  well. The position researched  by this framework suggests that only with the consideration of balance among all the four variables it is possible to demonstrate the activities of knowledge management in an organization. Therefore, instead of disregarding the importance of these variables or ignoring one of them (e.g. technology) all together, this framework views all the  groups and elements equally and puts  all the variables  in priority; in this  manner, the  activities of knowledge management could reach maximum success.<ref>How Leavitt's Diamond presents complexities affecting Knowledge Management [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268407704_Information_Technology_and_its_Deficiencies_in_Sharing_Organizational_Knowledge  Morteza Jamali, Ehsan Shafiezadeh, Mohsen M Jozani]</ref>
  
  
 
== See Also ==
 
== See Also ==
*[[Business IT Alignment]]
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[[Business IT Alignment]]<br />
*[[Strategic Alignment Model]]
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[[Strategic Alignment Model]]<br />
*[[Strategic Alignment]]
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[[Strategic Alignment]]<br />
*[[Strategic Alignment Maturity Model]]  
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[[Strategic Alignment Maturity Model]] <br />
*[[Value-Based Business-IT Alignment (VITAL) Project]]
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[[Strategic Management]]<br />
*[[Rockart and Scott's Alignment Model]]
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[[Value-Based Business-IT Alignment (VITAL) Project]]<br />
*[[Venkatraman Henderson Model]]
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[[Rockart and Scott's Alignment Model]]<br />
*[[Business Strategy]]
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[[Venkatraman Henderson Model]]<br />
*[[Change Management]]
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[[McKinsey 7S Framework]]<br />
*[[IT Strategy (Information Technology Strategy)]]
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[[McKinsey Matrix]]<br />
*[[IT Governance]]
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[[BCG Matrix]]<br />
*[[Enterprise Architecture]]
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[[GE/McKinsey Matrix]]<br />
*[[IT Operations (Information Technology Operations)]]
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[[Mintzberg's 10 Schools of Strategic Thought]]<br />
*[[IT Sourcing (Information Technology Sourcing)]]
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[[Mintzberg's 5Ps of Strategy]]<br />
*[[E-Strategy]]
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[[Mintzberg and Waters' Strategy Model]]<br />
*[[Chief Information Officer (CIO)]]
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[[Strategic Business Unit]]<br />
 +
[[Business Strategy]]<br />
 +
[[Change Management]]<br />
 +
[[IT Strategy (Information Technology Strategy)]]<br />
 +
[[IT Governance]]<br />
 +
[[Enterprise Architecture]]<br />
 +
[[IT Operations (Information Technology Operations)]]<br />
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[[IT Sourcing (Information Technology Sourcing)]]<br />
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[[E-Strategy]]<br />[[Chief Information Officer (CIO)]]<br />
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== References ==
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<references/>
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== Further Reading ==
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*Building on Leavitt's Diamond Model of Organizations: The Organizational Interaction Diamond Model and the Impact of Information Technology on Structure, People, and Tasks [https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a630/2d0c8212d612a613e456c4220cc7942c5a93.pdf Dianne Lux Wigand, Ph.D]
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*Eight Imperatives for the New IT Organization [https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/eight-imperatives-for-the-new-it-organization/ MIT Sloan Management Review]
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*The temporal nature of forces acting on innovative IT in major construction projects [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/24078013_The_temporal_nature_of_forces_acting_on_innovative_IT_in_major_construction_projects Steve Rowlinson]

Revision as of 07:43, 6 November 2019

Leavitt's Alignment Model or Leavitt’s System Model also known as Leavitt’s diamond is an integrated model to organizational change management. Leavitt’s diamond and organizational theory was developed by Dr. Harold Leavitt professor at Claremont and Stanford Universities in 1965. According to this approach, before you bring about change in any one of the four components, you should evaluate the impact on the other three components. To implement change successfully, you need to find the right balance between all of them.

Leavitt's Diamond is based on the principle that an organization has four major components that are all interdependent:

  • 1. Tasks
  • 2. People
  • 3. Structure
  • 4. Technology

Any type of change or redesign in one component will affect the other three. According to this approach, before you bring about change in any one of the four components, you should evaluate the impact on the other three components. To implement change successfully, you need to find the right balance between all of them. A classic example is introducing new technology. A change in technology means that people need to change too – they'll need training to use the new technology. This may affect the organizational structure, because people might demand higher pay and better positions. The new technology may also change old tasks. For instance, if the change automates old processes, the work that people do will be different.[1]


Leavitt's Diamond
source: Harold Leavitt’s diamond shaped organisational systems model (1965) (DeLone,W.:2009)


The Components of Leavitt's Diamond[2]

  • Structure: The structural component of Leavitt’s Diamond is about how individuals and teams are grouped in the organization. This is not only the hierarchical structure but also the relationships, communication patterns, and coordination between different management levels, departments, and employees. This would also include how authority and responsibility flow within the organization. The structure needs to be altered when changes are made to any other component of the diamond.
    • Key analysis questions:
      • What is the hierarchy in your work unit? Is the unit centralized or decentralized?
      • Where is the control at each level?
      • How are the work units divided?
      • What is the geographical breakdown (if everything isn’t at one location)?
      • How are duties divided?
      • What is the workflow?
      • What is the communication flow?
  • Tasks: To deliver the value we must do something. And “something” in this model is “tasks”. The department team and individuals all perform tasks. In an organizational change context, it’s important to understand what these tasks are in the current state and then compare these to what the tasks will be in the future state. By understanding this you can then develop communications and training programs to bridge the gap. In organizational restructures, perhaps where roles are made redundant or shifted to other departments it becomes critical to identify all the tasks and who and how they will be performed in the new environment.
    • Key analysis questions:
      • What is the staff expected to do?
      • How do staff get work done?
      • Why does the work unit exist?
  • People: People in this model are the actual people and their skills, attitudes, and behaviors in the workforce. People bring all this as a context to perform their work (or tasks). It’s important to understand the skills, behaviors, and attitudes people must have to succeed in the new environment.
    • Key analysis questions:
      • What are their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors?
      • What is their response to the proposed change?
      • What are their skill levels?
      • What are they trained to do?
      • What are the rewards that motivate them?
      • What is their work culture?
  • Technology: Technology is about the tools that people use to perform the tasks.
    • Key analysis questions:
      • Key equipment and processes that enable and support your business functions, including computer systems, essential software, devices – anything that enables communication and workflow.
      • Tools you can use to implement the proposed change, including things such as seminars and training materials.


Leavitt‟s diamond presents a balanced and rational view toward complexities affecting Knowledge Management framework. It also views technology in direct and strong relation with required tasks, employees, and task organization i.e. structure. This model has been widely used as the basis for understanding and realizing organizational changes. Leavitt‟s diamond (1965) demonstrates four groups of organizational variables: task, people, technology, and structure. As the arrows in the Figure above indicate, Leavitt states that these variables have many transactions with each other. Thus, changing one of them would result in regulatory and compensating change in other components. Technologies are tools that help organizations perform their tasks and help mechanisms turn inputs into products. Knowledge managementis not just about management of knowledge work processes or people performing them, since it influences technology and organizational structure as well. The position researched by this framework suggests that only with the consideration of balance among all the four variables it is possible to demonstrate the activities of knowledge management in an organization. Therefore, instead of disregarding the importance of these variables or ignoring one of them (e.g. technology) all together, this framework views all the groups and elements equally and puts all the variables in priority; in this manner, the activities of knowledge management could reach maximum success.[3]


See Also

Business IT Alignment
Strategic Alignment Model
Strategic Alignment
Strategic Alignment Maturity Model
Strategic Management
Value-Based Business-IT Alignment (VITAL) Project
Rockart and Scott's Alignment Model
Venkatraman Henderson Model
McKinsey 7S Framework
McKinsey Matrix
BCG Matrix
GE/McKinsey Matrix
Mintzberg's 10 Schools of Strategic Thought
Mintzberg's 5Ps of Strategy
Mintzberg and Waters' Strategy Model
Strategic Business Unit
Business Strategy
Change Management
IT Strategy (Information Technology Strategy)
IT Governance
Enterprise Architecture
IT Operations (Information Technology Operations)
IT Sourcing (Information Technology Sourcing)
E-Strategy
Chief Information Officer (CIO)


References

  1. Definition - What is the Leavitt's Diamond? Mindtools
  2. The Four The Components of Leavitt's Diamond Daniel Lock
  3. How Leavitt's Diamond presents complexities affecting Knowledge Management Morteza Jamali, Ehsan Shafiezadeh, Mohsen M Jozani


Further Reading

  • Building on Leavitt's Diamond Model of Organizations: The Organizational Interaction Diamond Model and the Impact of Information Technology on Structure, People, and Tasks Dianne Lux Wigand, Ph.D
  • Eight Imperatives for the New IT Organization MIT Sloan Management Review
  • The temporal nature of forces acting on innovative IT in major construction projects Steve Rowlinson