14 Principles Of Management

Henri Fayol proposed four primary functions of management and fourteen principles of management. [1]

Functions of Management

  1. Planning
  2. Organizing
  3. Leading
  4. Controlling

Lately scholars of management combined the commanding and coordinating function into one leading function.

Principles of Management

  1. Division of labor - The division of work is the course of tasks assigned to, and completed by, a group of workers in order to increase efficiency. Division of work, which is also known as division of labor, is the breaking down of a job so as to have a number of different tasks that make up the whole. This means that for every one job, there can be any number of processes that must occur for the job to be complete.
  2. Authority - Managers must be able to give orders. Authority gives them this right. Note that responsibility arises wherever authority is exercised.
  3. Discipline - Employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the organization. Good discipline is the result of effective leadership.
  4. Unity of command - Every employee should receive orders from only one superior.
  5. Unity of direction - Each group of organizational activities that have the same objective should be directed by one manager using one plan for achievement of one common goal.
  6. Subordination - The interests of any one employee or group of employees should not take precedence over the interests of the organization as a whole.
  7. Remuneration - Workers must be paid a fair wage for their services.
  8. Centralization - Centralization refers to the degree to which subordinates are involved in decision making.
  9. Scalar chain - The line of authority from top management to the lowest ranks represents the scalar chain. Communications should follow this chain.
  10. Order - this principle is concerned with systematic arrangement of men, machine, material etc. there should be a specific place for every employee in an organization
  11. Equity - Managers should be kind and fair to their subordinates.
  12. Stability of tenure of personnel - High employee turnover is inefficient. Management should provide orderly personnel planning and ensure that replacements are available to fill vacancies.
  13. Initiative - Employees who are allowed to originate and carry out plans will exert high levels of effort.
  14. Esprit de corps - Promoting team spirit will build harmony and unity within the organization.<ref>Fayol's 14 principles of management then and now


  1. Henri Fayol's 14 principles of management [1]

Further Reading

  • Fayol's 14 principles of management then and now: A framework for managing today's organizations effectively Carl A. Rodrigues

See Also

IT Strategic Planning
e-Business Strategic Planning
Governance of Information Technology (ICT)
What is Enterprise Architecture Planning
Information Technology Sourcing (IT Sourcing)
Information Technology Operations (IT Operations)
Chief Information Officer (CIO)