In computing, a cache is a hardware or software component that stores data so that future requests for that data can be served faster. The data stored in a cache might be the result of an earlier computation or a copy of data stored elsewhere.

Purpose and Role

A cache's main purpose is to increase data retrieval performance by reducing the latency time. This is achieved by storing a copy of the data in a faster access location (cache memory), close to the request origin.


A cache is composed of a pool of entries. Each entry has a data identifier (tag) and the associated value. When the cache client (a CPU, web browser, operating system) needs to access data presumed to exist in the backing store (memory, disk drive), it first checks the cache. If an entry can be found with a tag matching that of the desired data, the data is fetched from the cache (cache hit). Otherwise, the data is fetched from its original storage location, which is a slower process (cache miss).


Caching is crucial because it enhances system performance. It serves as an intermediary between the processor and memory or between the client and a remote server, providing a temporary storage space that allows data to be served faster, making computing and data retrieval more efficient.


The concept of cache memory was developed in computing to solve the bottleneck issue due to the speed mismatch between the CPU and main memory. It has since been integrated into many hardware and software systems due to its effectiveness in improving system performance.


The primary benefit of caching is that it speeds up data retrieval, which directly contributes to the overall performance of a system. In hardware, this leads to faster processing times. In software, especially in web technology, this reduces loading times, improving the user experience.

Pros and Cons


  1. Improves speed and performance.
  2. Reduces latency.
  3. Minimizes network traffic.


  1. Requires effective algorithms to manage what gets stored in the cache, and when it gets replaced.
  2. Cache memory is often limited and more expensive.
  3. Stale data: If not updated properly, caches can contain old data, leading to inconsistencies.


  1. CPU cache: This is a hardware cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access data from the main memory.
  2. Web cache: Web browsers use caches to store web documents, such as HTML pages and images, to reduce server lag. By reusing previously retrieved resources, they accelerate page rendering times.
  3. Database cache: Databases use caching to reduce the number of data reads from the disk. This greatly increases the performance of data retrieval.

See Also

  1. Cache Memory
  2. Memory Hierarchy
  3. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  4. Memory Management
  5. Cache Coherence
  6. Cache Miss
  7. Cache Hit
  8. Virtual Memory
  9. Random Access Memory (RAM)
  10. Computer Architecture