Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)

The Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) is a measure used to calculate the average annual growth rate of an investment or business metric over a specified period, assuming that the growth rate is constant and compounded annually. It provides a single rate that represents the geometric progression of growth over multiple periods. [1]

The formula to calculate CAGR is as follows:

CAGR = (Ending Value / Beginning Value) ^ (1 / Number of Years) - 1


  1. Ending Value: The final value of the investment or metric at the end of the specified period.
  2. Beginning Value: The initial value of the investment or metric at the start of the specified period.
  3. Number of Years: The duration of the specified period in years.

The purpose of using CAGR is to provide a standardized measure of growth that allows for easier comparison across different investments or metrics. It smooths out the impact of volatility and fluctuations over time by assuming a constant growth rate.

The role of CAGR is particularly significant when analyzing investment returns, evaluating business performance, or comparing the growth rates of different companies or industries. It helps to identify the compounded growth rate over time, enabling investors and analysts to assess the long-term performance of an investment or business.

The importance of CAGR lies in its ability to provide a more meaningful and accurate representation of growth compared to simple average growth rates. It factors in the compounding effect, which can significantly impact on the overall growth of an investment.

Some key components and characteristics of CAGR include:

  1. Time Period: CAGR is calculated over a specific period, typically measured in years. It considers the growth rate over the entire period rather than focusing on individual years.
  2. Compounding: CAGR assumes that growth is compounded annually, meaning that the growth rate is applied to the accumulated value of the investment or metric at the end of each year.
  3. Constant Growth Rate: CAGR assumes a constant growth rate throughout the period. This assumption may not always hold in real-world scenarios, but CAGR provides a simplified measure for comparison purposes.

The benefits of using CAGR include:

  1. Comparison of Investments: CAGR allows for easier comparison of investment returns over different periods and across various asset classes, providing a standardized measure of growth.
  2. Long-Term Performance Assessment: CAGR is particularly useful for assessing the long-term performance of investments or businesses, as it considers the compounded growth rate over time.
  3. Predictive Power: CAGR can estimate future values based on historical growth rates, providing insights into potential future outcomes.
  4. Simplified Analysis: CAGR provides a single rate that summarizes the overall growth of an investment or metric, making it easier to communicate and interpret.

However, it's important to consider the limitations of CAGR. It assumes a constant growth rate, which may not be realistic in all situations. It also does not account for volatility or fluctuations within the period, and outliers or abnormal growth rates may influence it.

An example of using CAGR would be calculating the annual growth rate of an investment portfolio over a 5-year period. Applying the CAGR formula to the beginning and ending portfolio values lets you determine the average annual growth rate achieved during that time. This can help evaluate the portfolio's performance and compare it to other investment options.

See Also

  • Net Present Value (NPV) - A valuation metric often used in conjunction with CAGR to evaluate the profitability of an investment.
  • Return on Investment (ROI) - A metric that measures the profitability of an investment, sometimes compared or contrasted with CAGR.
  • Time Value of Money - A foundational finance concept that underpins the rationale for using CAGR to normalize growth rates over time.
  • Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) - A valuation method that uses future free cash flow projections and discounts them to estimate present value, can be related to CAGR.
  • Capital Budgeting - The process by which businesses determine whether projects are worth investing in, often using metrics like CAGR for assessment.


  1. What is a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)? HP