Information may be defined as a fact or set of facts, knowledge, news, or advice, whether communicated by others or obtained by personal study and investigation; any datum that reduces uncertainty about the state of any part of the world; intelligence; knowledge derived from reading, observation, or instruction.
- Processed data
- Organized data for a purpose
- Presented within a context that gives it meaning
- Information is valuable because it can affect behavior and a decision.
Types of Information
There are four types of information:
- Factual: Factual information is information that solely deals with facts. It is short and non-explanatory. The best place to find factual information is in reference books such as encyclopedias and almanacs. You can also find it in governmental statistics such as the U.S. Census.
- Analytical: Analytical information is the interpretation of factual information. What does the factual information mean? What does it imply? This is the type of information that researchers generate in their studies. Analytical information is mostly found in books and journals.
- Subjective: Subjective information is information from only one point of view. Opinions are subjective. You can find subjective information almost anywhere factual information isn't. It is in books, journals, websites and book reviews.
- Objective: Objective information is information that is understood from multiple viewpoints and presents all sides of an argument. Reference books are a good place to find objective information. Newspapers that have balanced and fair reporting are also objective. Opposing Viewpoints and Facts on File are both great objective databases.
The Need and Importance of Information
In the present day society, there is a great and urgent need for access and availability of information. The information need for the various purposes is enumerated below as:
- Information is an aid in decision making, policy making needed for the policy makers, decision makers, managers etc.
- Information will have a reinforcing/ trans forming effect on human beings on receiving it. A great deal for change can be perceived in the human minds/ attitudes on obtaining the information, as it increases the ability of personal knowledge for the recipient.
- Information generates new information. This is the existing knowledge/ information helps in generating new information; new knowledge; new theories, etc.
In fact, scientists and scholars avail or use information to produce another document, like research reports, thesis/ dissertations, books, journal articles, seminar paper etc.
- The users of various professions and vocations like doctors, engineers, scientists, scholars etc. acquire and apply information in order to do their job more effectively and efficiently. i.e. application of information for practical purposes.
- Information supports research in order to obtain effective and fruitful results.
- Information helps in better management of manpower, materials, production, finance, marketing etc.
- State-of-art kind of information of a subject helps in identifying the gaps/ shortcomings in in the subject field and to identify the research problems to be explored or undertaken.
- Information helps in avoiding the duplication of research.
- Information stimulates the thought process of the users, particularly the scholars.
- Information helps the scientists, engineers, scholars, etc. to get well informed with the current advancements in their subjects, and to keep them up-to-date.
- Information Analysis
- Information Architecture
- Information Assurance (IA)
- Information Asymmetry
- Information Capabilities Framework (ICF)
- Information Design
- Information Engineering (IE)
- Information Flow
- Information Framework (IFW)
- Information Governance (IG)
- Information Lifecycle
- Information Management
- Information Mapping
- Information Model
- Information Privacy
- Information Quality Management (IQM)
- Information Resource Management (IRM)
- Information Risk Management (IRM)
- Information Security
- Information System (IS)
- Information Technology (IT)
- Information Theory
- Information Visualization
- Information as a Service (IaaS)