Outcome is defined as the result or consequence of one or more actions. It can be desirable or undesirable. Outcomes can be intended or unintended.
The objective of business is to produce desirable outcomes - business strategy is a means to that end and technology helps with it. The objective of management is to ensure intended outcomes, minimize unintended consequences, and when unavoidable to limit their damage. The latter is the purview of risk.
Outcome is used to determine the success or failure of a strategy, process, or initiative. Outcomes are measured using metrics such as output, efficiency, effectiveness, etc.
Outcome is important because when connected with the specific actions that led to them corrections can be made to reduce, eliminate or reverse the undesirable and unintended consequences.
An example of a desirable outcome is value creation. On the other hand value loss or destruction is an undesirable outcome.
Optimization aims to reduce or reverse value loss, an unintended outcome. For example, tuning Business Operations to produce more for less helps create more value for a business.