A Z-Score is a statistic that is used to measure how far a particular value is from the average (mean) of a group of values. It is often used in statistics and Data Analysis to understand how unusual or rare a particular value is.
To calculate a Z-Score, you first need to find the average of the group of values and the standard deviation, which is a measure of how spread out the values are. Then, you subtract the average from the value you want to find the Z-Score for, and divide the result by the standard deviation.
For example, let's say you have a group of students and you want to find out how tall they are compared to the average height. You could measure their heights and then calculate the average height and the standard deviation of the heights. Then, you could calculate the Z-Score for each student's height by using the formula: (height - average height) / standard deviation.
Z-Scores can be positive or negative, and they can help you understand how unusual or common a particular value is in relation to the other values in the group.