# Cross Tabulation

## What is Cross Tabulation

**Cross Tabulation**, also known as cross tab or contingency table, is a statistical technique used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. It involves organizing data into a table that shows the frequency or count of observations for each combination of variables.

For example, a cross-tabulation might be used to analyze the relationship between gender and political party preference. The resulting table would show the number of male and female respondents who identified as Democrats, Republicans, and independents.

Cross-tabulation is a useful tool for understanding patterns and trends in data, as it allows researchers to see how different variables are related to each other. It can be particularly useful for understanding relationships between categorical variables, such as gender, age, or income level.

Cross tabulation can be done manually using a spreadsheet or other software, or it can be done using specialized statistical software such as SPSS or SAS. In addition to the raw count of observations, cross-tabulation can also include measures of association, such as chi-square or contingency coefficient, which provide a measure of the strength of the relationship between the variables.

## See Also

- Pivot Table - An advanced form of cross-tabulation often used in spreadsheets to summarize data.
- Data Visualization - The practice of representing data in visual formats like graphs and charts; cross tabulations can be visually represented in various ways.
- Data Mining - The practice of examining large databases to generate new information; cross tabulation could be a step in this process.