Electronic Government (E-Government)
Electronic Government refers to the simplification and the transaction of business processes by the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in the context of governance and public administration. "Electronic Government (EGovernment) is the use of information and communication technologies in public administrations - combined with organisational change and new skills - to improve public services and democratic processes and to strengthen support to public policies."
Delivery models and activities of e-government
The primary delivery models of e-government can be divided into:
- Government-to-citizen or government-to-consumer (G2C):
- In this model, the G2C model apply the strategy of customer relationship management (CRM) with business concept.
- By managing their customer (citizen) relationship, the business (government) can provide the needed products and services fulfill the needs from customer (citizen).
- In United States, the NPR (National Partnership for Reinventing Government) has been implemented from 1993.
- Government-to-business (G2B)
- Government-to-government (G2G)
- Government-to-employees (G2E)
Within each of these interaction domains, four kinds of activities take place:
- pushing information over the Internet, e.g.: regulatory services, general holidays, public hearing schedules, issue briefs, notifications, etc.
- two-way communications between the agency and the citizen, a business, or another government agency. In this model, users can engage in dialogue with agencies and post problems, comments, or requests to the agency.
- conducting transactions, e.g.: lodging tax returns, applying for services and grants.
- governance, e.g.: To enable the citizen transition from passive information access to active citizen participation by:
- Informing the citizen
- Representing the citizen
- Encouraging the citizen to vote
- Consulting the citizen
- Involving the citizen