What is Expectancy Theory?
Expectancy theory is a motivational theory in psychology that explains how an individual's effort, performance, and outcomes are related. The theory proposes that an individual's motivation to engage in a particular behavior is determined by their belief that the behavior will lead to a desired outcome, and their belief in their ability to successfully execute the behavior. Expectancy theory was first proposed by Victor Vroom in 1964.
The theory posits three key components that determine motivation: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence.
- Expectancy: an individual's belief that their effort will lead to high performance, represented by the formula Expectancy = probability (effort leads to performance)
- Instrumentality: an individual's belief that high performance will lead to a desired outcome, represented by the formula Instrumentality = probability (performance leads to the outcome)
- Valence: an individual's value or importance of the outcome, represented by the formula Valence = value of the outcome
Expectancy theory suggests that an individual's motivation is a function of the product of expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. Thus, motivation = expectancy * instrumentality * valence
Expectancy theory has been applied in a variety of settings, including the workplace, education, and healthcare. It can be used to design motivational strategies that are tailored to the specific needs and beliefs of individuals and groups, in order to increase their motivation and performance. It can also be used to improve an individual's self-efficacy, by giving them feedback that shows their progress and results.