Organizational Commitment may be viewed as an organizational member's psychological attachment to the organization. Organizational commitment plays a very large role in determining whether a member will stay with the organization and zealously work towards organizational goals.
Affective commitment relates to how much employees want to stay at their organization. If an employee is affectively committed to their organization, it means that they want to stay at their organization. They typically identify with the organizational goals, feel that they fit into the organization and are satisfied with their work. Employees who are affectively committed feel valued, act as ambassadors for their organization and are generally great assets for organizations.
Continuance commitment relates to how much employees feel the need to stay at their organization. In employees that are continuance committed, the underlying reason for their commitment lies in their need to stay with the organization. Possible reasons for needing to stay with organizations vary, but the main reasons relate to a lack of work alternatives, and remuneration. A good example of continuance commitment is when employees feel the need to stay with their organization because their salary and fringe benefits won’t improve if they move to another organization. Such examples can become an issue for organizations as employees that are continuance committed may become dissatisfied (and disengaged) with their work and yet, are unwilling to leave the organization.
Normative commitment relates to how much employees feel they should stay at their organization. Employees that are normatively committed generally feel that they should stay at their organizations. Normatively committed employees feel that leaving their organization would have disastrous consequences, and feel a sense of guilt about the possibility of leaving. Reasons for such guilt vary, but are often concerned with employees feeling that in leaving the organization they would create a void in knowledge/skills, which would subsequently increase the pressure on their colleagues. Such feelings can, and do, negatively influence the performance of employees working in organizations.
Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ)
Organizational Change Management (OCM)
Three- Component Model Questionnaire (TCM)