Remote Method Invocation (RMI)

Remote Method Invocation (RMI) is a Java-based technology that allows objects in a distributed system to invoke methods on remote objects residing in another Java Virtual Machine (JVM) over a network. RMI enables communication between Java applications running on different hosts, making it an essential component for developing distributed applications in Java.

Purpose: The purpose of RMI is to enable developers to create distributed applications in Java by allowing objects to invoke methods on remote objects seamlessly. RMI facilitates communication between Java applications running on separate hosts, simplifying the development of distributed systems and enabling Java objects to interact with each other across a network.

Role: RMI plays a crucial role in the development of Java-based distributed applications by providing the following:

  1. Transparent communication: RMI enables Java objects to invoke methods on remote objects as if they were local objects, hiding the complexity of remote communication and marshalling of data.
  2. Object serialization: RMI automatically serializes (converts objects into a byte stream) and deserializes (reconstructs objects from byte stream) objects passed as arguments and return values of remote method calls.
  3. Garbage collection: RMI supports distributed garbage collection, allowing remote objects to be garbage collected when they are no longer needed by any client.
  4. Dynamic class loading: RMI supports dynamic class loading, allowing clients to download and execute remote objects' classes on demand.

Components: Key components of RMI include:

  1. RMI Registry: A server-side component that stores remote object references, enabling clients to look up and access remote objects.
  2. Remote Interface: Defines the methods that can be invoked remotely by clients.
  3. Remote Object: The implementation of the remote interface, which contains the actual business logic.
  4. Client: The application that invokes methods on remote objects through RMI.
  5. Stub and Skeleton: Proxy objects that facilitate communication between the client and remote object. The stub resides on the client-side and the skeleton on the server-side.

Importance: RMI is essential for Java-based distributed application development, as it simplifies communication between remote Java objects, allowing developers to create complex distributed systems with ease.


  1. Simplifies the development of distributed applications in Java.
  2. Enables seamless communication between remote Java objects.
  3. Supports object serialization, garbage collection, and dynamic class loading.
  4. Provides a native Java solution for remote communication, ensuring compatibility and integration with the Java ecosystem.


  1. Easy to use and understand for Java developers.
  2. Provides a native Java solution for remote communication.
  3. Hides the complexity of remote communication and data marshalling.


  1. Limited to Java-based applications.
  2. May have performance issues compared to more lightweight communication protocols.
  3. Can be more challenging to configure and troubleshoot compared to other solutions like REST or gRPC.

Examples to illustrate key concepts: Suppose a distributed banking system has a server application that manages account data, and a client application allows users to view and update their account information. Using RMI, the client application can seamlessly invoke methods on the server-side remote objects to fetch or update account data without worrying about the complexities of remote communication, data serialization, and network programming.

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