# 8D Problem Solving

Eight Disciplines (8Ds) Problem Solving is a method developed at Ford Motor Company used to approach and to resolve problems, typically employed by engineers or other professionals. Focused on product and process improvement, its purpose is to identify, correct, and eliminate recurring problems. It establishes a permanent corrective action based on statistical analysis of the problem and on the origin of the problem by determining the root causes. Although it originally comprised eight stages, or 'disciplines', it was later augmented by an initial planning stage. [1]

The disciplines are: D0: Plan—Plan for solving the problem and determine the prerequisites. D1: Use a team—Establish a team of people with product/process knowledge. D2: Define and describe the problem—Specify the problem by identifying in quantifiable terms the who, what, where, when, why, how, and how many (5W2H) for the problem. D3: Develop interim containment plan; implement and verify interim actions—Define and implement containment actions to isolate the problem from any customer. D4: Determine, identify, and verify root causes and escape points—Identify all applicable causes that could explain why the problem occurred. Also identify why the problem was not noticed at the time it occurred. All causes shall be verified or proved, not determined by fuzzy brainstorming. One can use 5 Whys and cause and effect diagrams to map causes against the effect or problem identified. D5: Choose and verify permanent corrections (PCs) for problem/nonconformity—Through preproduction programs, quantitatively confirm that the selected correction will resolve the problem for the customer. D6: Implement and validate corrective actions—Define and implement the best corrective actions. D7: Take preventive measures—Modify the management systems, operation systems, practices, and procedures to prevent recurrence of this and all similar problems. D8: Congratulate your team—Recognize the collective efforts of the team. The team needs to be formally thanked by the organization.<ref>What are the 8 Disciplines? ASQ

source: Mind Tools

The 8D problem solving process is a detailed, team oriented approach to solving critical problems in the production process. The goals of this method are to find the root cause of a problem, develop containment actions to protect customers and take corrective action to prevent similar problems in the future. The strength of the 8D process lies in its structure, discipline and methodology. 8D uses a composite methodology, utilizing best practices from various existing approaches. It is a problem solving method that drives systemic change, improving an entire process in order to avoid not only the problem at hand but also other issues that may stem from a systemic failure. 8D has grown to be one of the most popular problem solving methodologies used for Manufacturing, Assembly and Services around the globe. Read on to learn about the reasons why the Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving may be a good fit for your company.

The 8D methodology is so popular in part because it offers your engineering team a consistent, easy-to-learn and thorough approach to solving whatever problems might arise at various stages in your production process. When properly applied, you can expect the following benefits:

• Improved team oriented problem solving skills rather than reliance on the individual
• Increased familiarity with a structure for problem solving
• Creation and expansion of a database of past failures and lessons learned to prevent problems in the future
• Better understanding of how to use basic statistical tools required for problem solving
• Improved effectiveness and efficiency at problem solving
• A practical understanding of Root Cause Analysis (RCA)
• Problem solving effort may be adopted into the processes and methods of the organization
• Improved skills for implementing corrective action
• Better ability to identify necessary systemic changes and subsequent inputs for change
• More candid and open communication in problem solving discussion, increasing effectiveness
• An improvement in management’s understanding of problems and problem resolution

8D was created to represent the best practices in problem solving. When performed correctly, this methodology not only improves the Quality and Reliability of your products but also prepares your engineering team for future problems.<ref>The Importance and Benefits of Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving Q-1

### References

1. Defining the 8 Disciplines of Problem Solving Wikipedia