A reference model in systems, enterprise, and software engineering is an abstract framework or domain-specific ontology consisting of an interlinked set of clearly defined concepts produced by an expert or body of experts in order to encourage clear communication. A reference model can represent the component parts of any consistent idea, from business functions to system components, as long as it represents a complete set. This frame of reference can then be used to communicate ideas clearly among members of the same community. Reference models are often illustrated as a set of concepts with some indication of the relationships between the concepts.
- A reference model presents a kind of model pattern for a certain class of aspects. It can be used to derive a specific model or for purpose of comparison. Comparing a specific model of HIS (or subsystem) with a reference model congruencies and differences may be stated and used for the planning and direction of HIS.
- A reference model is a model representing a class of domains, e.g. a reference model for production planning and control systems. It is a conceptual framework or blueprint for the system’s development.
- An abstract representation of the entities and relations within a problem space; it forms the conceptual basis to derive more concrete models from which an implementation can be developed.
- A formal model in the form of an extended automaton used as a customized recommendation repository for a specific individual physical exercise.
- Agent Systems Reference Model (ASRM)
- Application-Capability Reference Model (ARM)
- Technical Reference Model (TRM)
- Performance Reference Model (PRM)
- Data Reference Model (DRM)
- Infrastructure Reference Model (IRM)
- Security Reference Model (SRM)
- Consolidated Reference Model (CRM)
- Data and Information Reference Model (DRM)
- SCOR (Supply Chain Operations Reference Model)
- The HP IT Service Management Reference Model
- Information Governance Reference Model (IGRM)
- OASIS SOA Reference Model
- Open-System Environment Reference Model (OSERM)
- Reference Semantic Model (RSM)
- Navy Process Reference Model